Test tube baby centre in India| best ivfcentre| Ashoka Hospital



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A sexual problem, or sexual dysfunction, refers to a problem during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. A lot of women with infertility problems also have sexual problems, for instance, adhesions which then cause pain during sexual intercourse. This can lead to an avoidance of sex because of the pain associated with it. At the most biological level sex exists as a means of reproduction and it binds couple together. The presence or absence of sexual intimacy among couple is a powerful indicator of the health of relationship. These problems can be physical or psychological. Sexual problems causing infertility needs a medical attention and first line of treatment is Counseling. Through Counseling, couples are encouraged to express their feelings, thoughts about sexuality and to share their difficulties.

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Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. In humans it accounts for 40-50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men. Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.

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Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans. It affects an estimated 48 million women with the highest prevalence of infertility affecting people in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia.[1] Infertility is caused by many sources, including nutrition, diseases, and other malformations of the uterus. Infertility affects women from around the world, and the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies.

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Everyone's response to infertility is different depending on individual situations, emotional strengths, coping methods and personality. You will be confronted with the emotional impact of infertility before, during, and after treatment. It is better to prepare yourself for these difficult periods, so that with emotional support and mental preparation, you can successfully reduce the potential pain of infertility. Although you may have friends who have experienced infertility and you're aware that it is a common disorder, the news is almost always unexpected. As you examine the issues surrounding infertility, you may find yourself experiencing some uncomfortable emotions.

In most cases, infertility is not diagnosed until after one year of unsuccessfully trying to conceive. Because of this, you may suspect that you have a problem before finding out for sure. For many couples, infertility is very difficult to accept. Most couples initially respond with feelings of shock and disbelief. After planning for years to have a child "one day", you may feel that your life's plan has been put on hold. These feelings generally only last a short while and are not emotionally harmful when you recognize and address them. The number of losses associated with infertility makes depression a very common response. In addition to the loss of a baby, infertility represents the loss of fulfilling a dream and the loss of a relationship that you might have had with a child. What you are mourning for is the absence of experience - and this type of sadness can be especially hard to deal with. You and your partner may have even more difficulty dealing with these losses because friends and family often underestimate the emotional impact of infertility - and you have no one to talk to. The nature of infertility is such that you may never know definitely whether you are able to conceive or what is causing the problem. Your grief therefore has nothing to focus on - and there is the continual hope that "this will be the time" which can leave your emotions painfully suspended, creating a continual "hoping against hope" attitude. When someone dies, the death brings family and friends together to grieve the loss - and this helps in healing. In contrast, infertility is a very private form of grief - you grieve alone without social support because the loss is hidden.

Hopelessness is related to depression and usually results from the up and down cycle of emotions produced by infertility and its treatment. Most likely, you'll feel hopeful during mid-cycle when you've been treated and are looking to success. But if the cycle is unsuccessful, hopelessness can occur, and you may feel that you'll never become pregnant. Starting over again each month can make dealing with infertility especially tough. After the disappointment of several unsuccessful cycles, you may find it difficult to maintain a positive attitude. You may think that it gets easier with time - but it never does - and every time it fails, old wounds ( which you hoped had healed ) open again. After all, every time you start a treatment ( especially when it is a new type of therapy you have never tried before; or treatment with a new doctor), you always do it with the hope that "this" time it's going to work for you. If you didn't have this hope, no matter how small, no one would ever start treatment at all!

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In medicine, it is traditional for the doctor to do tests in order to come to the right diagnosis. He needs to identify what your problems are, so that he can then suggest the right treatment. This seems very logical and makes a lot of sense. After all, if the doctor cannot identify the problem, how can he suggest a solution? However infertility medicine is completely different. Unlike other branches of medicine, it is not a problem oriented - it is solution oriented. Patients don't come to a doctor and say - Please open my blocked tubes - they come to a doctor and say - I want to have a baby!

For older patients, the final common treatment pathway which most doctors will advice is IVF, because it maximizes their chances of getting pregnant. This is true, no matter what their medical diagnosis is - whether it is unexplained infertility; or blocked tubes; or a low sperm count. It really doesn't matter what the problem is - what we're trying to do is to bypass the problem, rather than waste time trying to identify it! This means that if an older woman comes to me, I will tell her that the only reasonable solution for her would be IVF treatment. Now , it's only she's willing to do the IVF treatment would it make sense for me to do medical tests for her , so that I can formulate a treatment plan which is tailored to her particular diagnosis. However, if she's not willing to do IVF, there's really no point in my doing any tests at all, because it's not going change any recommendation I can make for.

Actually, this is true in some other conditions as well. Let's take the case of a man with an advanced prostate cancer who has metastases in the lungs. There's little point in doing repeated CTs of the chest, if he does not want any medical intervention for this. The Golden rule in medicine is simple - you should only do tests if it changes your treatment options!

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In order to maximize your chances of conception, it is important to have sex during ovulation. There are many methods of successfully timing your ovulation cycle. In order to increase your chances of conception, you may want to try timing sex at the time of ovulation. This increases the chances of conception, because it gives the sperm and egg a better chance of meeting. You can use a conception calculator or conception calendar to determine your "fertile time" so that you can plan baby making sex. Conception can only occur around the time of ovulation, and this information can help you increase your chances of pregnancy.

1. Menstrual period timing (Calendar method) To determine the length of the menstrual cycle, one only needs to note the date of the beginning of the menstrual period (first day of flow) for two consecutive periods, and then count the day from one date to the next. Keeping track of the length of menstrual cycles will help determine the approximate time of ovulation, because the next period begins approximately two weeks from the date of ovulation. The rough rule to calculate the approximate date of ovulation is: NMP minus 14 days, where NMP is the ( expected) date of the next menstrual period. This is because the luteal phase for most women is 14 days long. Date of ovulation = NMP - 14 Keeping track of the menstrual cycle by charting it can indicate other ovulatory disturbances. For example, if a menstrual cycle that is normally 28 days starts to occur every 35 or 40 days, this may mean that ovulation is disturbed, and an evaluation is needed.

2. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) chart During the luteal phase of the cycle, the corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone, which elevates the basal body temperature. When the basal body temperature has gone up for several days, one can assume that ovulation has occurred. However, it is important to remember that the BBT chart cannot predict ovulation - it cannot tell you when it is going to occur! The basal temperature chart can be a useful tool. It allows the patient to determine for herself if she is ovulating as well as the approximate date of ovulation, in retrospect. Basal body temperature charts are easy to obtain and the only equipment required is a special BBT thermometer. General instructions for keeping a basal body temperature chart include the following: The chart starts on the first day of menstrual flow. Enter the date here. Each morning immediately after awakening, and before getting out of bed or doing anything else, the thermometer is placed under the tongue for at least two minutes. This must be done every morning, except during the period. Accurately record the temperature reading on the graph by placing a dot in the proper location. Indicate days of intercourse with a cross.Note any obvious reason for temperature variation such as colds, or fever on the graph above the reading for that day. The major limitation of the BBT is that it does not tell you in advance when you are going to ovulate - therefore its utility in timing sex during the fertile period is small. Interpreting the BBT chart can be tricky for many patients - rarely do the charts look like those you see in textbooks! Also, keeping a BBT chart can be very stressful - taking your temperature as the first thing you do when you get up in the morning is not much fun. What is worse is that you start to let the BBT chart dictate your sex life. This is why though the BBT chart used to be a useful method in the past, it's utility is limited today - and newer methods are available which are more accurate are available. Manufacturers have now incorporated a microprocessor along with the digital thermometer, to create an electronic fertility management device, called The Bioself Fertility Indicator. This makes calculation of the "fertile days" much easier, because it combines and optimizes both the basal body temperature and calendar method of ovulation prediction.

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In Vitro Maturation" the egg are collected from the Ovaries of the woman using ultrasound guideline when they are immature. The immature eggs thus collected are placed in the laboratory under special scientific condition for one or two days to get them matured. This means that a woman need not take as many ovary stimulating costly hormonal injection before her eggs are collected. In this method the women are thus not at risk of developing "Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome

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What is Egg Donation?

In egg donation, eggs are borrowed from a young woman (less than 33 yrs of age) called the donor, with her consent. These eggs are then fertilized with the sperms of the husband of the recipient woman and the resultant embryo (the earliest form of the baby), is inserted into the womb of the recipient. The success rate of this procedure is in the region of 30 to 40%. In fact, many women till the age of 50-55 have become pregnant by this technique. You will be surprised that the oldest woman pregnant by this procedure is 69 year old, residing in Italy. At Babies and Us, the oldest woman who has conceived with this technique is 62 years of age. This is probably the oldest woman to have become pregnant, in India.

What is Sperm Donation?

It is a procedure by which the egg of a female is fertilized, using artificial insemination techniques or IVF, with sperm from a healthy male that has been donated and kept frozen in a sperm bank. The resulting embryo may then develop into a foetus inside the uterus. This way, a couple gets a chance to conceive a child who has genetic traits of one of the parents and the mother can experience pregnancy.

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Embryo adoption is the newest method of family-building, which combines assisted reproductive technology with adoption, so that instead of adopting a baby, infertile couples adopt an embryo.

What is embryo adoption?

Embryo adoption is the newest method of family-building, which combines assisted reproductive technology with adoption, so that instead of adopting a baby, infertile couples adopt an embryo. When we perform IVF, young women often produce many eggs, and therefore, many embryos. If the parents get pregnant, they often agree to donate their embryos to other infertile couples, to help them to start a family. Embryo donations are types of fertility treatment used to help couples to conceive. Embryo donation is an option if you and your partner require both egg and sperm donation, or if you are a single woman who cannot use your own eggs. Embryos are usually donated by couples who have successfully had their baby or babies from IVF and who want to help other couples.

Why is this called adoption?

Firstly, like traditional adoption, the couple who adopts the embryo has no genetic connection to it. In addition, embryo donation offers an altruistic use for surplus embryos, just like adoption meets the needs of both the adoptive family, and the unwanted child.

How does embryo adoption done?

The procedure is identical to a frozen thaw embryo transfer ET cycle. For young women, we can transfer the embryos in a natural cycle, 2 days after ovulation. For older women, we need to down regulate with GnRH analog from Day 1, and then prepare the uterus to accept the embryo with exogenous estrogens and progesterone. The procedure is non-surgical, and there is no risk involved.

What are the advantages of egg and embryo adoption?

If you can't produce healthy eggs, using donated eggs gives you the chance of conceiving. Age limits do apply, and each clinic has its own criteria. But because donor eggs are from young women, success rates for donor egg and embryo IVF can be higher than with regular IVF.

What about confidentiality?

In our clinic, embryo adoption is totally anonymous, unless donation is done by a friend or relative of the recipient. There is no contact between the donating couple and the recipients, who never see each other. There are no records maintained about the origin and the ultimate resting place of the embryos.

How is this procedure different from adopting a child?

Unlike traditional adoption, the couple undergoes a medical rather than a legal procedure to have a baby. For infertile couples, embryo donation offers a great opportunity to be pregnant, to bond with their child prior to birth, and to give birth. In addition, embryo donation may be much more affordable than traditional adoption in countries such as the US. In India younger couples are given preference for adoption. Couples more than 45 years of age have a very poor chance of adopting a baby. Embryo donation also offers couples privacy and secrecy, so that they do not need to worry about societal acceptance of their adopted child. Also in India, certain groups such as Christians and Muslims cannot adopt. Embryo donation is the only solution to these patients.

Isn't this similar to Surrogacy?

In surrogacy, another woman accepts the embryos of a couple and carries the pregnancy for the benefit of the infertile couple. In contrast in embryo donation, the infertile couple carries the embryos of another couple and ultimately delivers the child that they will parent.

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What is Surrogacy?

Surrogacy is when another woman carries and gives birth to a child for you i.e. a surrogate mother is one who lends her uterus to another couple so that they can have a baby. Though it can be an emotionally intense and legally complex arrangement, it is growing in popularity among parents as a way of having children. Today India is the best destination for IVF and surrogacy treatments. When IVF fails then Surrogacy in India is the solution for more success rate. Surrogacy India is in demand day by day coz its very economical in India and Surrogacy India Law are also very flexible for the same. Surrogacy requires a lot of time, money and patience to succeed, whether its carried out privately or through an agency. But it can bring happiness to all concerned if the medical, legal, financial and emotional aspects are properly considered. Because we are a full-service IVF clinic, we provide these additional options as well. We will help you make the right decision, so you can maximize your chances of having a baby! Deciding to go in for surrogacy is a very hard decision for most infertile couples, because of the many variables involved, and they have many concerns - social, legal, financial, emotional and medical. Surrogacy is an involved process; and it does take time to think through your decision because you need to consider many factors.

How does surrogacy work?

1. IVF surrogacy (gestational carrier) - full surrogate: This is where a woman carries a pregnancy created by the egg and sperm of genetic couple. The carrier is not genetically related to the child. Most intended parents prefer gestational surrogacy because they feel more secure in knowing the chances of the surrogate being able to keep their baby is slim to none. They also feel more in control of the surrogacy and pregnancy in general because they are choosing the genetics of their baby. An advantage to having an egg used by an ovum donor or the intended mother is that for the surrogate mother, it separates the complex emotional issues of being a gestational and genetic donor/mother. Many surrogate mothers find that their friends and family are more receptive to their participation in a surrogacy because they more easily view the child the surrogate carries as belonging to the intended parents due to its genetic makeup.

2. Using an Egg Donor: Here, the surrogate is inseminated with sperm from the male partner's of an infertile couple or a sperm donor. The child that results can be genetically related to the surrogate and to the male partner but not to the commissioning female partner. In this process a screened egg donor undergoes hormone therapy (usually injections) over the course of many weeks which cause her ovaries to release more than one egg. Between one and fifteen eggs are usually harvested during a surgical procedure. They are then inspected for quality and either frozen for use later or immediately mixed with sperm for the intended father or a sperm donor.

3. Commercial surrogacy: Commercial surrogacy is a form of surrogacy in which a gestational carrier is paid to carry a child to maturity in her womb and is usually resorted to by well off infertile couples who can afford the cost involved or people who save and borrow in order to complete their dream of being parents. This procedure is legal in several countries including in India where due to excellent medical infrastructure, high international demand and ready availability of poor surrogates it is reaching industry proportions. Commercial surrogacy is sometimes referred to by the emotionally charged and potentially offensive terms "wombs for rent", "outsourced pregnancies" or "baby farms". Women who agree to become a surrogate may do so for compassionate reasons to help a sister, daughter or friend. Some women may agree to become surrogates for financial remuneration. However, commercial surrogacy is not allowed in the United Kingdom.

What's the success rate?

Analyzing statistics for the success rate for surrogacy is virtually impossible, as too many factors go into the mix. If you've found a willing surrogate, who gets pregnant through fertility treatments and carries the baby to term, you'll have succeeded where many other couples haven't.

What are the advantages of surrogacy?

If you can't conceive, surrogacy creates a chance for you and your partner to parent a child who is at least partially genetically yours. This genetic link may be through your partner's sperm or an embryo which was created from your egg and your partner's sperm. For gay male couples, surrogacy offers a route to parenthood. If you and your partner have an open arrangement with your surrogate mum, you can be closely involved with the pregnancy and be present at the birth.

What are the disadvantages of surrogacy?

In addition to the complications which go with fertility treatments and procedures, surrogacy is highly controversial and can be legally complex. Some surrogates mothers experience difficult emotional and psychological issues over letting the baby go. You may feel suspense and anxiety while waiting for a pregnancy to reach full-term safely. You may also worry about legal complications, the ethics of surrogacy, and the possibility that the surrogate will change her mind. Any agreement made with a surrogate mum is not recognized as a legally-binding contract. You and your chosen surrogate may have difficulty making mutual decisions during pregnancy, such as which antenatal tests she has and how to manage the pregnancy and birth.

Legal Aspects of Surrogacy in India

As commercial surrogacy in India is now in practice as the legal aspects surrounding surrogacy are complex, diverse and mostly unsettled. In most of the countries world over, the woman giving birth to a child is considered as the Child's legal mother. However, in very few countries, the Intended Parents are be recognized as the legal parents from birth by the virtue of the fact that the Surrogate has contracted to give the birth of the Child for the commissioned Parents. India is one country amongst the few, which recognize the Intended/ Commissioning Parent/s as the legal parents. Surrogacy India is much simpler and cost effective than anywhere else in the world. There is an increasing amount of Intended Parents who choose India as their surrogacy destination. The main reason for this increase is the less costly surrogacy and better flexible laws. In 2008, the Supreme Court of India has held that commercial surrogacy is permitted in India. That has again increased the international confidence in going in for surrogacy in India. India is foremost in surrogacy because of the low cost treatment and availability of women opting to be surrogate for childless couples. In India Surrogacy costs about $ 12,000 compared to US where it is $70,000. Moreover laws in US and UK do not allow the surrogate woman to charge the childless couple; whereas in India there are no laws preventing a surrogate woman in accepting compensation for renting her womb. A childless couples offer Rs.3, 00,000 to Rs.4, 00, 000 or more and sometimes even funds for education to the surrogate woman and there should be laws in India protecting not just the couple but also the woman opting to be surrogate keeping in mind the economic compensation and help that it offers to not just the illiterate women but also their families in India. Surrogates may be relatives, friends, or previous strangers. Many surrogate arrangements are made through agencies that help match up intended parents with women who want to be surrogates for a fee. The agencies often help manage the complex medical and legal aspects involved. Surrogacy arrangements can also be made independently.

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Infertility is defined as the inability for a couple to become pregnant after a year of regular, unprotected intercourse. By this definition the duration of the failure to conceive should be 12 or more months before an investigation is undertaken unless medical history and physical findings dictate earlier evaluation and treatment. Of all the pregnancies that occur after unprotected timed intercourse, 78 - 85 % are achieved in the first 6 months of trying. The male partner, the female partner, or both, may have a fertility problem. In women over 35 years old, an evaluation and possible treatment is needed after 6 months of unprotected intercourse. A person who is infertile has a reduced ability to have a child. It usually doesn't mean a person is sterile -- that is, physically unable ever to have a child. Up to 15% of all couples are infertile, but only 1% to 2% are sterile. Half of couples who seek help can eventually bear a child, either on their own or with medical assistance. Men and women are equally likely to have a fertility problem. In about one in five infertile couples, both partners contribute to fertility problems, and in about 15% of couples, no cause is found after all tests have been done. This is called "unexplained infertility." There is no "typical' infertile patient. Ovulation and sperm deficiencies are the most common infertility problems, accounting for two-thirds of all cases. When ovulation fails to occur, no egg is available for fertilization. The most common symptoms of ovulatory problems are irregular menstrual periods or the absence of menstrual periods. Less common fertility problems for women include structural problems or scarring of the fallopian tubes and/or uterus caused by pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis (a condition causing adhesions and cysts), uterine fibroids or congenital (birth) defects. Sperm deficiencies can include low sperm production (oligospermia) or lack of sperm (azoospermia). Sperm may also have poor motility-they don't move properly once inside the female reproductive tract to achieve fertilization. Additionally, sperm cells may be malformed or may die before they can reach the egg. About one-third of infertility cases can be attributed to male factors, and about one-third to factors that affect women. Roughly one-third of infertility is couple-related, with a combination of problems in both partners impeding fertility.

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ICSI is much more advance process than IVF where a single spermatozoa is directly injected in to the cytoplasm of oocytes. This process is done using an inverted microscope equipped with micromanipulators & micro injectors. The micro injected egg is then returned to the incubators for further culture. The embryos thus obtained from ICSI programme are taken for ET same as IVF.

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IMSI technique is capable of magnifying the image of the sperm 7200 times, thereby allowing doctors to pick the best looking healthier sperms. The machine is an advanced version of the earlier technique of Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), having the magnification capacity of 16 times. In IMSI the morphologically selected, best looking and healthier sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm of Oocytes. The embryo thus obtained is then placed in the uterus.

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Assisted hatching is a technology which helps embryos to attach to the womb of the woman. Pregnancy cannot occur unless the human embryo hatches.

The unfertilised egg is surrounded by a shell called zona pellucida. The zona pellucida ensures that only one sperm cell enters and thus fertilises the egg. After fertilisation of the egg, zona pellucida keeps the cells of the embryo together. During the cleavage stages and in vitro culture of the human embryo, zona pellucida gets harder, possibly due to the culture conditions. Removing the egg for in vitro fertilisation and micro insemination takes it out of its natural environment. This procedure tends to lead to egg shells that harden faster than seen in vivo.

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With a blastocyst transfer, the embryo has advanced to the five or 6-day stage. This means the embryo has divided many more times into many more cells over this period. Blastocysts have a very thin outer shell thus potentially increasing the chances of implantation into the uterine cavity. Most of the blastocyst contains a fluid cavity and it is possible to see the cells which will become the baby and those which will make up the placenta. While the majority of fertilised eggs will develop into a three-day old embryo, only perhaps 40% of these embryos will develop into a blastocyst. Therefore, blastocysts are considered to be a more "select" group of embryos with a higher chance of pregnancy.

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In Vitro Fertilization is commonly referred to as IVF. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body: in vitro (in a laboratory dish). IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. When the IVF procedure is successful, the process is combined with a procedure known as embryo transfer, which is used to physically place the embryo in the uterus.

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IVF follows a series of steps, starting with fertility drugs to help you produce as many eggs as possible.

1. Hormone Stimulation The woman gets a hormone stimulation to regulate the egg production and the egg maturation. You will probably need to take fertility drugs to stimulate your ovaries to develop mature eggs ready for fertilization. During your normal menstrual cycle you release one egg per month. You can choose not to take drugs to stimulate your ovaries, but your odds of getting pregnant will be better with more eggs. By monitoring your blood hormone levels, your doctor can detect when your eggs are mature.

2. Ultrasound scans of the follicles An ultrasound scan will show when your eggs are ready to be retrieved.

3. Egg retrieval and Sperm Collection Vaginal ultrasound guided egg collection is the most common technique; it is a minor and safe surgical procedure usually performed under sedation or a general anesthetic. Sedation is a safe and acceptable method of providing pain relief for egg collection. The eggs are removed from the ovaries using the hollow needle, which is called follicular aspiration. A vaginal ultrasound probe with a fine hollow needle attached to it is inserted into the vagina. Under ultrasound guidance, the needle is then advanced from the vaginal wall into the ovary to suck out the fluid from the follicle which contains the egg. Each egg is removed in turn through the needle by a suction device. Follicle flushing is not associated with improvement in pregnancy rates or the number of eggs collected, but does increase the duration of the procedure and associated pains. The whole procedure takes about 20-30 minutes. Sedation and local anesthesia are provided to remove any discomfort that you might experience. Some women may experience cramping on the day of retrieval, which usually subsides the following day; however, a feeling of fullness or pressure may last for several weeks following the procedure. While your eggs are being collected, your partner will need to provide a fresh sample of semen. If donor sperm cells or frozen sperm cells are to be used, these are thawed. The sperm is washed by removing inactive cells and seminal fluid in a process called sperm washing and the best-quality sperm extracted ready to fertilize the eggs.

4. Fertilization The aspirated eggs are fertilized with the sperm cells in the laboratory. The eggs are collected into a specially prepared culture medium and once collected, they are examined under the microscope and each is graded for maturity, the maturity of an egg will determine when the sperm will be added to it. In a process called insemination, the sperm and eggs are placed in incubators located in the laboratory which enables fertilization to occur. In some cases where fertilization is suspected to be low, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used. Through this procedure, a single sperm is injected directly into the egg in an attempt to achieve fertilization. The eggs are monitored to confirm that fertilization and cell division are taking place. Once this occurs, the fertilized eggs are considered embryos. After about 48-72 hours from the egg collection, the embryos will usually consist of 4-8 cells each, and ready for replacement into the woman's uterus.

5. Embryo transfer The fertilized egg/eggs are transferred to the woman's uterus for normal growth anywhere from one to six days later, but most commonly it occurs between two to three days following egg retrieval.The transfer process involves a speculum which is inserted into the vagina to expose the cervix. A predetermined number of embryos are suspended in fluid and gently placed through a catheter into the womb. This process is often guided by ultrasound. The number of embryos that are transferred will depend on your age and your chances of success. This in turn depends on your particular fertility problem. The procedure is usually painless, but some women experience mild cramping. The embryo replacement (embryo transfer) procedure is quite simple and usually pain free. It may cause minimal discomfort and no anesthetic is used, although some women may need sedation or occasionally a general anesthetic.

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Possible risks may occur throughout the procedure, and depend on the specific step of the procedure. However, Babies delivered as a result of IVF treatment and other assisted conception treatments do not seem to have a congenital malformation rate that is greater than that of the normal population. Behaviorally they are similar to other children.

1. Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) During ovarian stimulation, hyper stimulation syndrome may occur. This results in swollen, painful ovaries and some form of it (mild, moderate or severe) occurs in 30% of patients. Mild cases can be treated with over the counter medications and cases can be resolved in the absence of pregnancy. In moderate cases, ovaries swell and fluid accumulated in the abdominal cavities and may have symptoms of heartburn, gas, nausea or loss of appetite. In severe cases patients have sudden excess abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and will result in hospitalization.

During egg retrieval, there's a small chance of bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding structures like bowel and bladder (transvaginal ultrasound aspiration) as well as difficulty breathing, chest infection, allergic reactions to meds, or nerve damage (laparoscopy).

2. Multiple Pregnancies During embryo transfer, if more than one embryo is transferred there's always a risk of multiple pregnancy, infertile couples may see this is good news but there may be risk to the embryos and to the mother such as premature delivery or a baby with a low birth weight. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) involves a significant physical, financial, and emotional commitment on the part of the couple. Psychological stress and emotional problems are common, and even more so if IVF is unsuccessful.

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